Strategy Checklists for Teachers

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As a teacher in training, I am learning multiple strategies to become an effective teacher and have a welcoming, engaging classroom for all my students.  I hope to employ many, if not all, of these strategies, but in order to do so, I need to better organize them so that they can be referenced when I need them.  The following are strategy checklists I have created that focus on three aspects of teaching: implementing culturally responsive teaching, differentiating instruction, and empowering students to take ownership of their learning.  I chose these three aspects because I believe they are integral to effective teaching, and because I feel I need to focus on these three areas in particular.  

Strategies for Implementing Culturally Responsive Teaching for Teachers

  • Pronouncing students’ names correctly

For many immigrant students, school is their first point of contact with a new culture.  Learning how to pronounce students’ names shows that the teacher respects them as individuals and respects their culture.  According to Professor Rita Kohli, when teachers do not take the time to learn students’ names, they invalidate the students, which builds “walls” between the student and the school and can hinder learning (Mitchell, 2016).

  • Visiting students in their homes and communities

By going out into the community in which students live, teachers can see what life is like outside the classroom for their students.  Seeing students in their home environments can open teachers’ eyes to the kids’ economic realities and can quash any stereotypes the teacher consciously or subconsciously has.  Knowing the culture and home life of the students is one of the most effective ways a teacher can prevent themselves from succumbing to the dangers of the “single story” that Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie warns against in her TED Talk (Adichie, 2009).

  • Tapping into funds of knowledge

When teachers get to know their students, their students’ families, and their students’ cultures well, they have access to a wealth of knowledge and human experience that can add multiple perspectives to the learning experience. Dr. Mandy Stewart states that teachers should adopt an “asset mindset” when teaching English language learners (ELLs) in order to learn about the funds of knowledge that ELLs can offer their teacher and classmates.  Not only can culturally diverse students offer new and different realms of knowledge, but also different approaches to learning familiar subjects (Krutka, 2015).  

  • Evaluating textbooks and supplemental material to insure a diversity of perspectives are represented

It is so important for teaching materials to represent a diversity of perspectives for two reasons: to let students know that people like them are important and matter in the worlds of literature, science, history, etc., and to open up new worlds and experiences to students when they encounter other cultures in their learning (Adichie, 2009).  This can be taken a step further by discussing the diversity of perspectives and teaching students about the bias inherent in all sources of information.  In a video titled “Callie,” a fifth-grade teacher effectively discusses how the historical facts in textbooks and spoken by teachers have elements of opinion to them since they are seen from the perspective of another person (P., 2014).

  • Holding affirming views about cultural diversity

Teachers should believe that all students are capable learners and have positive contributions to make to the learning environment.  If teachers respect cultural differences and see these students in an affirming manner, they will hold them to higher expectations.  In turn, these higher expectations will generally translate into a more rigorous learning environment, greater self-confidence, and higher achievement (Villegas & Lucas, 2007).

  • Developing sociocultural consciousness

Most of the time, teachers should look at the student and his family to see past the stereotypes that come from looking at cultural groups as a whole; however, in order to develop sociocultural consciousness, a teacher must step back from the individual and look at the student’s culture on a broader level.  Understanding the social and economic systems of a student’s culture is imperative in understanding the values held by the student and in understanding some of the educational inequities a student may face, since economic and educational equity are so closely connected.  Developing a deep understanding of sociocultural issues can be done through reading and being trained by an experienced facilitator (Villegas & Lucas, 2007).

  • Using analogies and examples that are pertinent to the students’ lives and cultures

Using students’ interests and issues that are important to them can help them understand new material.  Teachers can help students build bridges between what they already know and what they need to learn and can also use these interests to increase engagement, motivating students to learn.  An excellent example of this cultural bridge-building happens in “Callie,” in which Callie ties her lesson on immigration to her students’ current concerns about immigration issues in America that affect themselves and their families (P., 2014).

 

Strategies for Differentiating Instruction for Teachers

  • Providing multiple means of representation

Students learn in a variety of ways, and providing multiple means of input will insure that students are being given an equal opportunity to acquire knowledge (Barrett, 2013).  For example, it can be particularly helpful for English Language Learning (ELL) students to have visuals such as graphic organizers or to participate in hands-on learning activities (Krutka, 2015).

  • Providing multiple means of expression

Means of student output is just as crucial as input when it comes to differentiating instruction.  Students should have a variety of options in which they can demonstrate learning; teachers should not rely on a single means of gauging students’ understanding, especially when some students require modifications or are ELL students (Barrett, 2013).  Some examples of multiple means of expression include allowing students to use verbal as well as written responses and using hands-on demonstrations of knowledge (Ebeling, Deschenes, Sprague, 1994).  

  • Increasing wait time

All students can benefit from greater wait time after being asked a question, but especially ELL students.  Waiting three seconds for an answer may seem like an easy task in theory, but can actually be quite challenging.  There are other techniques for eliciting responses in which additional wait time is built in naturally for students who need it, such as journal writing and small group discussions (Krutka, 2015).

  • Gathering background information on students prior to the school year

Providing students with multiple means of engagement is an important strategy for differentiating learning so that all students are more motivated to learn.  One of the ways to do this is to base lessons and assignments on student interests (Barrett, 2013).  In order to learn more about students interests before the school year starts, teachers can send out a parent letter with questions or a survey about their children’s preferences.

  • Assigning time limits to homework

If students are given a math worksheet for homework, some students might finish in twenty minutes, while others may take significantly longer.  One way to make sure that some students are not getting bogged down by homework that takes them longer to finish is by imposing a limited amount of time that students should be working.  For example, a math teacher assigns a worksheet, and tells her students to either complete it or work on it with an honest effort (maybe having a parent sign off) for twenty minutes, whichever comes first.  Homework time limits are the equivalent to adapting the number of items a student must complete, which is a common modification in inclusive classrooms (Ebeling, Deschenes, Sprague, 1994).

 

Strategies for Empowering Students to Take Ownership of Their Learning for Teachers

  • Allowing them to work independently on projects that follow their interests

In a traditional public school,  it is unrealistic for students to always follow their own interests (like students at A.S. Neill’s Summerhill School), or even design their own learning for a semester like the students in the Independent Project.  The biggest benefit for the students in the Independent Project, is the complete ownership the students have over their learning (Tsai, 2013).  This ownership translates to greater motivation and greater understanding.  Even if independent, student-driven work comes in smaller doses such as Genius Hour, it still increases students’ motivation to learn (Carter, 2014).

  • Collaborating with students at the beginning of the year to formulate classroom guidelines and structure

Creating democratic communities in the classroom can empower learning and engage students who might otherwise just come to class and go through the motions.  The writing of a “class constitution” or a group behavior contract can also make students accountable to each other for their behavior.  Deciding together what the class finds most valuable in the structure of and guidelines of the classroom is a good first step for creating a community of empowered learners (Brodhagen, 1995).

  • Tracking student progress through portfolios

Saving the work of students in an organized portfolio allows them to look back at the end of a unit/semester/year in order to reflect upon and evaluate what they have learned.  Self-evaluation is a necessary step for students to become self-regulated learners.  Portfolios also serve as a tangible demonstration of their learning, so that they can see the results of the effort they have put forth in their learning (Brodhagen, 1995.)

  • Guiding students as they write their own learning goals

If students are to take true ownership of their learning, then they must understand what they are working towards.  Setting their own short and long-term goals will help inform the student of what and why they are learning.  Setting goals will also help in their self-assessment and reflection; as they look back, they can determine how and if their learning goals were reached (Brodhagen, 1995).

  • Offering students choices in their learning

If possible, involve students in making decisions about the curriculum and use their interests to inform what will be learned.  If this is not possible, give students choices in other ways that relate to their learning.  For example, give them choices about how they would like to be assessed at the end of a unit.  When students are given the opportunity to direct their learning, they will be more motivated to learn and more productive (Kohn, 2015).

  • Asking students to take part in the parent-teacher conference

It seems counterintuitive to leave the learner out of a conversation about his/her own learning.  If students are to have true ownership of their learning, then they should also be involved in the evaluation of their learning and should be able to reflect upon it (Krutka & Milton, 2015).  Student-led conferences also shift power in the conversation of the student’s learning, thereby giving the student more control over what is said about the their own learning (Brodhagen, 1995).  

 

References

Adichie, C. N. (2009, July). The danger of a single story. Retrieved May 01, 2017, from https://www.ted.com/talks/chimamanda_adichie_the_danger_of_a_single_story

Barrett, L. (2013). Seamless teaching: Navigating the inclusion spectrum. Teaching Tolerance, 52(43), 53-55.

Brodhagen, B. (1995). The situation made us special. In M. Apple & J. Beane (Eds.), Democratic schools (pp. 83−100). Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Carter, N. (2014, August 04). Genius Hour and the 6 Essentials of Personalized Education. Retrieved May 02, 2017, from https://www.edutopia.org/blog/genius-hour-essentials-personalized-education-nichole-carter

Ebeling, D.G. Deschenes, C., & Sprague, J. (1994). Adapting curriculum and instruction

Kohn, A. (2015, June 22). Progressive Education (#). Retrieved May 02, 2017, from http://www.alfiekohn.org/article/progressive-education/

Krutka, D. (2015, September 10). Approaches to Bilingual Education. Retrieved May 01, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oyoUy1yW2NQ

Krutka, D., & Milton, M. (n.d.). Episode 43: Student-led Conferences With Cathy Whitehead. Retrieved May 02, 2017, from https://soundcloud.com/visionsofed/episode-43-student-led-conferences-with-cathy-whitehead

Mitchell, C. (2016, May 10). Mispronouncing students’ names: a slight that can cut deep. Retrieved May 01, 2017, from http://mobile.edweek.org/c.jsp?cid=25919841&bcid=25919841&rssid=25919831&item=http%3A%2F%2Fapi.edweek.org%2Fv1%2Few%2F%3Fuuid%3D73BA86AA-13AA-11E6-9D11-71C9B3743667&cmp=SOC-SHR-FB

P. (2014, February 05). Callie. Retrieved May 01, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7JNq0gu-eb4

Tsai, C. (2013, February 13). If students designed their own schools… Retrieved May 02, 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RElUmGI5gLc

Villegas, A. M., & Lucas, T. (2007). The culturally responsive teacher.Educational Leadership, 64(6), 28-33.

 

How Do Teachers Grow in Their Craft?

Ten years ago I started my first career as a children’s librarian in a public library.  The first week,  I was to observe a baby storytime, and then be observed the subsequent week.  Before this, my only storytime experience had been with Kindergarten-2nd grade, a very different audience from the one I was transitioning to, so I was looking forward to the initial guidance and feedback I would receive.  Approximately five minutes before the baby storytime was scheduled to start, the librarian that was to train me came into the office in tears, severely distraught over a fight with her husband.  She then left me there to fend for myself. Needless to say I was extremely nervous, and felt bad for the quality of program I presented that day.  My observation the next week never happened and I basically schooled myself on best practices for my early literacy programs (this was not taught to me when I was getting my master’s in library science). I primarily relied on professional learning networks (PLNs) to get schooled in children’s programming, made a ton of mistakes and adjustments, and eventually mastered that area of my field after several years.  Now that I’m entering the field of education,  I have a feeling that my first year of teaching will be very similar to that first hour of baby and preschool storytime, only the consequences for those I’m teaching this time are way more important.  I plan to do an internship instead of student teach, so I feel like my first year will involve me falling flat on my face, many times.   But at least I know I’m going to fall,  so I can attempt to brace myself for it.

As a teacher in training, it’s encouraging to hear about the practices featured in a radio documentary called Training Teachers.   I was excited to learn about teaching residencies modeled after medical residencies in this American Radio Works (ARW) documentary: http://www.americanradioworks.org/documentaries/teaching-teachers/ .  Getting to practice with highly qualified teachers and receive immediate feedback seems so valuable, as does the fact that the teachers in some of these residencies are practicing on adults standing in for actual students. This makes it less nerve-racking for the teacher in training because they don’t have an actual student’s education in their hands while they are still in process of training.  The immediate feedback also makes it easier to pinpoint problems and think of other methods in the moment, but also allows for reflection after the fact.  I’m also very encouraged by the development of the high leverage teaching practices.  One of the educators behind the practices, Deborah Ball, admits how difficult it was to create a comprehensive, yet practical list of the fundamental practices that teachers need to employ in order for their students to learn.  According to Ball, the list is not “the end,” and her and her colleagues request suggestions from educators as to practices that need to be added (Handford & Pekow, n.d.).  For a teacher-in-training like myself, who will not have the advantage of student teaching before being on my own in a classroom, knowing the high leverage practices will be extremely helpful in guiding my teaching.  

This same documentary also features the practice of lesson study in Japanese schools. Lesson study consists of teachers researching new teaching techniques and methods, planning a lesson using them, and having other teachers observe and critique the lesson, so the teachers are learning the newest methods of teaching, and also learning from each other.   I love this idea,  and the fact that the Japanese believe in the concept of continuous improvement,  in which most learning is done on the job and one is always striving to assess, reflect,  and improve upon one’s teaching (Hanford & Pekow, n.d.).  While I think it would be a little bit intimidating at first–having multiple colleagues sitting in on  lessons and making suggestions during the reflection time–I think it is something I would eventually get used to.  Being critiqued in the manner of the lesson study model would be a great way to practice high leverage teaching practice #19: analyzing instruction for the purpose of improving it.  Evaluating and reflecting on how I teach will only make me improve and be open to trying new methods of instruction for my students.

There are some schools in America trying out the practice of lesson study, but will it catch on in more American schools?  I hope so, but doubt it, because as education researcher James Hiebert said in Teaching Teachers, “We are so addicted to quick fixes. If it doesn’t fix things in two years, it’s not worth it” (Hanford & Pekow, n.d.).  Plus, the structure of the American school day would have to altered to accommodate the lesson study model, and additional money would need to spent to hire subs or paraprofessionals to watch classes while teachers attended lesson study.  I believe it would be so beneficial for American schools to adopt some form of lesson study, not only for the teachers being observed and critiqued, but also for the observers.   I have always benefitted tremendously from watching other professionals perform the same duties as me.  Everyone does things differently, and mindful observation can show even the most seasoned professional something new.  

One last thing that I really appreciated about the Japanese point of view on teaching is how they attribute achievement/learning problems to bad teaching instead of bad teachers.  A bad teacher needs to be replaced, but a teacher who is using ineffective methods can be taught new techniques and can develop as a professional.  As professor of education Deborah Ball said in Teaching Teachers, most teachers can not be expected to have a natural talent for teaching, but all teachers deserve to have training that prepares them to teach well, and the students they serve deserve to have well-trained teachers (Hanford & Pekow, n.d.).   As I enter the teaching profession, I need to plan not just how to educate and evaluate my students, but also how to educate and evaluate myself as a professional.  

Hanford, E. (Executive Producer) & Pekow, S. (Associate Producer). (n.d.). Teaching Teachers [Radio program]. Saint Paul, MN: American Public Media.

Ethical Dilemma for Educators

Greetings fellow educators!   In this audio file I discuss an ethical dilemma pertaining to sexual harassment in the profession of education.  Hopefully it will never happen to any of us, but it is good to be armed with knowledge and forethought of what we should if these incidences happen to us or our colleagues. 

**You may want to turn your volume down before listening.  There were some technical difficulties with my mic volume.  My apologies!**

References:

(2016.) Code of Ethics and Standard Practices for Texas Educators. Retrieved from http://texreg.sos.state.tx.us/public/readtac$ext.TacPage?sl=R&app=9&p_dir=&p_rloc=&p_tloc=&p_ploc=&pg=1&p_tac=&ti=19&pt=7&ch=247&rl=2

Facts About Sexual Harassment. (n.d.). Retrieved March 04, 2017, from https://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/publications/fs-sex.cfm

How Can Instruction be Differentiated for Diverse Learners?

In my past life as a children’s librarian in a public library, my duties included providing educational, engaging programming on a regular basis for kids ages 5-8.  At first, this seemed fairly easy since there existed a template from previous librarians:  find a nonfiction topic, read a picture about it, ask reading comprehension questions and discuss said topic, then do a craft or activity.  After a year or two of creative stagnation and declining program numbers, I knew an overhaul was in order. The program seemed too much like a classroom setting to me, and I didn’t want that for kids who just spent all day in a classroom.  Plus, it was clear that some activities/topics/books were either too challenging for the younger kids, or too easy or of no interest to the older kids.   I took a cue from my much more successful early literacy programs, which offered several activity “stations” that tied into one skill (e.g., phonological awareness), but used a variety of means to reinforce the skill (matching rhyming words, singing songs into a “hear myself” phone, acting out nursery rhymes with finger puppets, etc.).  I started planning my elementary-aged programs in the similar manner, and made my introduction to the topic more flexible — sometimes we would read a story, other times watch a video, or listen to audio selections.  After making these changes, I witnessed kids becoming more engaged, sharing more of their own prior knowledge of the topics, and having more fun.  Little did I know that I was employing elements of differentiated instruction (DI).  I also had no idea that my quest to create less of a school-like atmosphere would one day resemble the goals I would have in running an actual classroom.  

What is differentiated instruction and why is it essential in an elementary general education classroom?   In the process of DI, educators modify their teaching methods and assessments to meet the learning needs of diverse students (Barrett, 2013).  DI is an essential practice in a general education classroom because the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) mandates that students with disabilities be educated in the least restrictive environment (LRE), meaning that they should be learning alongside students without disabilities to the greatest extent possible and appropriate for the nature and severity of their disability (Heward, 2013).  This means that most general education classrooms will include at least one student with disabilities, and that the teacher will need to differentiate instruction for the student(s) with disabilities; however, DI can also be used to increase learning and engagement for all students, since all learners have diverse interests, preferences, and strengths.  

Activity stations like those mentioned above are great way to get students engaged while supporting different intellectual strengths in a general education classroom, but an effective DI classroom is much more complex. Here some essential characteristics of a DI classroom and examples of how each can be achieved.

One of the key features of DI is flexibility:

  • Accommodate students with special needs by giving them more time, more guidance, alternate assignments, etc.
  • offer flexible seating options, including floor seating and desk clusters that allow various activities to happen at once.
  • Provide options for researching information.
  • Allow students to choose from a menu of options for in-class and homework assignments.
  • Provide space/time for both quiet work and collaborative work.
  • Allow students to use a variety of methods to comprehend material

Another essential aspect of DI is knowing your students.  This includes their interests, learning preferences, knowledge set, and skill levels:

  • Survey the students on interests, read their files, survey parents on their children.
  • Have the students fill out a KWL chart, survey the class for comprehension during and after the lesson on a regular basis.
  • Monitor activities in small groups, then assign further work based on an informal assessment of their knowledge.

Employing various methods of instruction to engage students and increase their understanding of the lesson is on of the most important characteristics of DI:

  • Use videos and visuals (charts, photos, realia, etc.) to present the same information in multiple ways in order to reach more students.
  • Introduce technology into lessons so that students can show their knowledge by creating original content to communicate their comprehension.

This is not an exhaustive list, and many of these methods and more can be found in this article by Grace Rubenstein and this article by Carol Ann Tomlinson.  

These practices seem effective, but how practical is it to teach using DI on a daily basis?  In the following video, first grade teacher Vanita Jarmon demonstrates how she employs daily differentiated instruction in her classroom:

 

As inclusion becomes the norm in public education, differentiated instruction is a necessary practice to make an inclusive classroom the best possible learning environment for students with and without disabilities.  As a future educator, I’m excited at the prospect of creating an effective, engaging classroom tailored to the needs of all my students.   How do you/will you create an inclusive learning environment for your diverse students?  How does secondary DI look compared to elementary?  How would you foster a collaborative culture of DI with other educators in your school or district?

 

Barrett, L. (2013). Seamless teaching: Navigating the inclusion spectrum. Teaching Tolerance, 52(43), 53-55.

 

Heward, W. (2013, July 19). Six Major Principles of IDEA. Retrieved February 08, 2017, from https://www.education.com/reference/article/six-major-principles-idea/

 

How Does Gender Affect the Teaching Profession?

In the nineteenth-century, much like today, the majority of public school teachers were female.  The reasons were simple:  women were cheaper labor than men and women were viewed as natural nurturers who could instill morality into their students.  Susan B. Anthony sought to change this by advocating for equal pay and for female teacher training at prestigious, co-ed universities (Goldstein, 2014).  Before the turn of the twentieth century, female administrators were unheard of in education.  According to Dana Goldstein in The Teacher Wars, “it was unthinkable that a woman would supervise men (p. 34).”  Female educators in the United States were not promoted into administrative positions until the turn of the twentieth century when teachers aligned themselves with blue collar labor unions to stage a rebellion.  They fought for better pay, better working conditions, and more control over their profession through access to upper levels of the professional hierarchy.  During this time, teachers’ federations, which eventually became unions, formed in large urban areas.  Two educators in Chicago, Margaret Haley and Catherine Goggin, encouraged local teachers to join the Chicago Federation of Teachers to fight for fairer wages, better benefits, and tenure.  Their efforts eventually resulted in the American Federation of Teachers, which is one of the largest teachers unions still in existence (“Teaching Timeline”).

How does the teaching profession look now, over one-hundred years after Anthony, Haley, and Goggins fought for gender equality?  Is teaching in America thought of as a prestigious profession?  Are teachers paid and supported in a way that promotes their worth in society?  Is the ratio of female administrators to teachers somewhat equal?   What ramifications do the answers to these questions have on the teaching and public education?

I’m sure you’ve heard the insipidly popular saying, “Those who can’t do, teach.”  Unfortunately, I believe this phrase conveys American society’s general opinion on the teaching profession.  In 2013, the Varkey Foundation attempted to rank the status of teachers by country in their Global Teacher Status Index.   The United States ranked ninth out of the twenty-one countries surveyed, but studies like this one that rely on human opinion should be taken with a grain of salt.  The United States beat out Finland, a nation known for its stellar national education system and for holding its teachers in great prestige and to high standards (Center on International Education Benchmarking, 2012).

Betsy Brown Ruzzi, VIce President of the National Center on Education and the Economy looked to the countries that outperformed the United States as models for improving the status of America’s teachers: “They recruit teachers at a minimum from the top third of the achievement cohort…. They also pay them well…. And when they enter teaching, they are treated like professionals (Khadaroo, 2013).”  According to a 2015 study, American  public school teachers made 17% less wages per week than similarly educated professionals in other  fields.  This is the largest wage gap seen since the start of data collection in 1979 (Strauss, 2016).  

Why are the professionals who take on the important task of preparing our children to become contributing members of society and the economy viewed and paid so poorly in America?  According to the National Center for Education Statistics, in 2011-12, 76% of educators in public K-12 schools were female (“National Center for Education Statistics: Fast Facts”).  Are our cultures gender biases so ingrained that we give a lesser status and pay to professions that are historically female?  I believe that is large part of the problem, especially when considering that the best-paid, non-administrative positions in many Texas public school districts are the male-dominated position of head high school football coach.  Many of them make nearly the same as their principals, and at times, more than double a starting teacher’s salary, according to this report by the Fort Worth Star-Telegram.  Another well-paid realm of the K-12 world that is overwhelmingly dominated by males is that of district superintendent.  Here is the breakdown of how women are represented within the hierarchy of school districts across the United States: 76% of teachers are female, 52% of principals, 78% of central office administrators, and a little bit less than 25% of district superintendents are female (Superville, 2016).  The fact that the gender divide skews so male in the top district position shows that women still have a ways to go in creating true equity in the realm of the teaching profession.  

Increasing the status level of the teaching profession, teacher pay, and the number of females at the highest district positions can only have positive effects for students.  Greater status and better pay would attract more highly qualified, highly competent educators to the profession and would also help retain talented teachersl.  Increasing the number of females in the upper echelon of a K-12 administration could increase the number of females interested in leadership positions in the profession, as well as inspire female students to pursue positions of leadership in the future.  Most teaching professionals deserve to be held in high esteem by the general public, the students, administration, and themselves.  

 

The following video gives the perspective of real educators on matters of status, pay, and more: 

Finland: Teacher and Principal Quality. (n.d.). Retrieved February 01, 2017, from http://ncee.org/what-we-do/center-on-international-education-benchmarking/top-performing-countries/finland-overview/finland-teacher-and-principal-quality/

 

Goldstein, D. (2014). The teacher wars: A history of America’s most embattled profession. New York: Doubleday.

 

Khadaroo, S. T. (2013, October 02). Teacher status around the world: how the US stacks up. Retrieved February 01, 2017, from http://www.csmonitor.com/USA/Education/2013/1002/Teacher-status-around-the-world-how-the-US-stacks-up

 

National Center for Education Statistics: Fast Facts. (n.d.). Retrieved January 31, 2017, from https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=372

 

Strauss, V. (2016, August 16). Think teachers aren’t paid enough? It’s worse than you think. Retrieved February 01, 2017, from https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/answer-sheet/wp/2016/08/16/think-teachers-arent-paid-enough-its-worse-than-you-think/?utm_term=.bd8c5cf95910

 

Superville, D. R. (2016, December 30). Few women run the nation’s school districts. Why? Retrieved February 01, 2017, from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/women-run-nations-school-districts/

 

Teaching Timeline. (n.d.). Retrieved January 31, 2017, from

http://www.pbs.org/onlyateacher/timeline.html